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Sarracenia - Carnivorous plant

Sarracenia - Carnivorous plant


SARRACENIA

The Sarracenia

are carnivorous plants that capture their preys by means of ASCID OR SIMILAR mechanisms deriving from the modification of some leaves.

The flap of the modified leaves loses, in whole or in part, its shape to become a cup, a wineskin, a tube, etc. which take on the function of capturing small animal prey.

The preys are attracted in various ways (with colors, with nectar, etc.) and remain trapped in the ascidian. At that point, devices are activated to dissolve them and absorb the elements that derive from them.

Generally, the ascidia are filled with water and the device that determines the death and decomposition of the prey is of secondary importance (a typical example is the Sarracenia and the Darlingtonia) as very often both the death and the decomposition of the prey takes place by the bacterial microflora normally present in these structures and not thanks to enzymes secreted by the plant but due to the secretion of acids by the acid-resistent bacteria they contain.

In typical carnivorous plants there is no symbiosis with bacteria and the digestion of the prey, which is always extracellular, occurs thanks to the secretion of animal proteolytic enzymes (pepsins, trypsins) associated mostly with the secretion of acids (formic acid) .

In some carnivorous plants the secretion of acids and enzymes is continuous while in others the secretion occurs only under the stimulus of the presence of the prey.

The Sarracenia (family Sarraceniaceae) are plants native to America typical of marshy soils with temperate climates.

The genre Sarracenia includes eight species.

They are provided with ascides of a different shape than the Nephenthes and at Chefalotus. In fact, the ascis is cone-shaped with colors ranging from green to purple and remains long and straight. The cone, depending on the species, can be elongated, flattened to the ground or small. Sarracenia which can even reach a meter in length. It does not have normal leaves but only leaves modified to ascidium.


Sarracenia flava

The Sarracenia has long and vertical "tube" leaves, that is in the shape of an inverted cone with an opening at the top, surmounted by a lid called "opercolo". The underground part is composed of a "rhizome" similar to a fleshy tuber, and several roots that are not extremely thick.

This plant can reach up to one meter in height and form dozens and dozens of tubes, called "ascidia",

able to attract and contain numerous prey. Its capture system is very simple, in fact the prey is attracted by the beautiful colors that this plant creates on its ascidia, and by the production of a dense and fragrant nectar that covers its entrance. Our victim therefore, intent on collecting the "honey", enters more and more towards the internal area of ​​the trap, which looks like a smooth and waxy wall, which inexorably makes the victim slide into the deepest and narrowest part of the trap. 'ascidio. At this point, the insect is unable to fly or even climb to the exit, due to a thick downward hair, which serves to facilitate the descent, but to make it impossible to ascend. the insect will be digested and absorbed by the plant, which will draw useful nourishment and benefit.

The eight species of Sarracenia differ greatly from each other, both in terms of colors and shapes.

Sarracenia psittacina and Sarracenia purpurea for example, are the only two species that possess the "lying" ascidia horizontally and not vertically like all the others.


Sarracenia: The carnivorous plant

There Sarracenia is an original plant from North America that grows spontaneously between the United States and Canada: this genus includes eight species from which an infinite number of hybrids, always different and new, can be obtained.

It has long vertical green tube-shaped leaves, or rather in the shape of an inverted cone with an opening at the top, surmounted by an operculum, which is the kind of cap that closes the tube from above. The underground part is the rhizome, a fleshy tuber: there are not very thick roots. It can reach a considerable height of about one meter, forming many ascidia, special green 'tubes'.

Its capture system is very simple, but it allows you to capture a large number of prey, which will be attracted by the various colors of the carnivorous plant, which it creates on its own ascidia: moreover there is the production of a special perfumed nectar that covers the 'entrance. This has a dual purpose: it attracts the prey and once it becomes more and more entangled in the nectar, this same nectar makes it slide towards the inside of the tube, and the operculum closes, excluding the possibility of the insect escape. This is then digested by means of special enzymes that the plant can emit once the lid has closed and the digestive process of the captured insect has been grafted.

There sarracenia psittacina and the Sarracenia purpurea they are the only two carnivorous plants of this species that have ascidia lying horizontally and not vertically like all the others.

The cultivation of these carnivorous plants is quite simple, as long as the climatic conditions in which the plants lived in their place of origin can be respected, which must be tried to reproduce, as far as possible, in our gardens or in our homes. In addition, there is a whole series of special precautions to follow, but overall it is all quite simple.


It is erroneously thought that carnivores should be sheltered in winter, in reality they live in swampy environments in North America (USA and Canada)

Indoor / outdoor plant, it can be placed outside in a bright position. irrigate frequently if possible with low calcareous water (excellent distilled water) or rain water. Absolutely do not fertilize as carnivores take microelements from insects. To bury / pot it, use only 100% peat or peaty soils. In winter it turns brown (VEGETATIVE REST) ​​is not dead. Place the plant outside in the sun in winter and make sure the soil is always moist (if the ground freezes the plant does not drink so periodically add water to the frozen soil)

DO NOT FERTILIZE USE DISTILLED WATER

The leaves of the sarracenia rot when they capture many insects, no problem, they will do others


Sarracenia - Carnivorous plant

Cuidados de las Plantas Carnívoras

En 2 páginas tienes el cultivo general de las Plantas Carnívoras. Te servirá de guía, todo lo esencial está aquí. Aquí tienes todas las fichas de plantas carnívoras.


1. Tipos de Plantas Carnívoras
2. Aclimatación
3. Luz
4. Temperature
5. Humedad
6. Sustratos para Plantas Carnívoras
7. Macetas
8. Agua para regar Plantas Carnívoras
9. Riego
10. Alimentación
11. Plagas y enfermedades
12. Transparent

1. Tipos de Plantas Carnívoras

Las Plantas Carnívoras se pueden dividir a more or less en carnívoras de clima tropical y carnívoras de clima no tropical.

•Carnívoras tropicales: Nepenthes, Caphalotus, Pinguicula. There are more difficulties of cultivar porque necesitan a humedat high and temperature cálida. Los terrarios are sitios ideales para ellas.

•Carnívoras no tropicales: Dionaea, Sarracenia, Darlingtonia, Drosera, algunas Pinguiculas, Utricularia vulgaris. Viven al aire libre en zonas where los inviernos son fríos (no demasiado). They are plantas que pasan for a period of letargo en invierno. En jardines acuáticos or pantanosos van muy bien.

2. Aclimatación

Cuando buys a Planta Carnívora y la metes en casa, if it produces a shock hasta que consigue aclimatarse a su nueva ubicación.

Terrarium with Carnívoras


The best is to place it in principle in a terrarium (high humedad y calorcito) or in an armazón de madera cubierto with a transparent plastic or algo similar. De vez en cuando, it is advisable to save the planta during unos minutos para airearla, but not to the direct sun. Tras un mes ya podrás quitarle la bolsa or terrario y treat it normally.

Todo esto no es essential, but ayuda a la aclimatación, especially when the planta es delicada or comes débil.

Las Plantas Carnívoras necesitan bastante luz.

Las trampas ofrecerán colores más vivos with más luz. Por ejemplo, en Dionaea son más rojas.


Winter with Carnívoras

Les agrees at the menos 5 horas de rayos del sol directo a las siguientes especies: Dionaea, Sarracenia, Heliamphora, Pinguicula, Cephalotus y Darlingtonia. Yes, el sol de la mañana, between 8 AM and 12 PM, when no es tan fuerte. TO Drosophyllum le gusta mucho más sol que a las anteriores.


Nepenthes y Drosera no quieren sol directo porque se pueden quemar las trampas. Por tanto, a luz difuminada with filters like laminas onduladas de PVC, placas de polycarbonate (eg a type de plastic), cristales. será lo mejor.

Es preferible la luz solar natural a la artificial, pero ésta última también se utiliza, por ejemplo, en terrarios.

4. Temperature

De nuevo, los requerimientos de temperature varían de unas especies a otras, dependiendo de si es de origen tropical or not.


Dionaea. Sarracenia

Dionea y Sarracenia necesitan pasar unos meses hibernando, with temperature fría inferiores to + 5ºC. Yes no hibernaran, in the spring brotarían débilmente y terminarían muriendo. Lo necesitan para recuperar fuerzas.

La hibernación se puede hacer al aire libre or metiendo la planta en el frigorífico.

Al aire libre siempre que el clima sea frío with inviernos en los que during el day the temperature oscillates between -10ºC and + 5ºC. En el jardín se enterrarían los tiestos en el suelo or placing sobre el sustrato cortezas de pino or musgo seco. También es posible to place the macetas in a porche or in a balcony, sin agua en el plato y protegida del sol directo.

In any case, lo habitual es meter Dionaeas y Sarracenias en el frigorífico, whence tendrán a temperature alrededor of +3 or + 4ºC.

Dos semanas antes de meterla, pulveriza with fungicide adecuado y riega muy poco.

Pasadas las dos semanas comprueba que no tenga demasiada agua tanteando el peso, y pulveriza otra vez con el fungicida para los hongos.

Por último, if you aim in a hermetic plastic bag and if you place in the mas baja part of the refrigerador.

Semanalmente revisa que no se freezes el sustrato, ya que tiende a ello, y que no se formen hongos. De vez en cuando se debe abrir la bolsa para que se ventile la planta hasta que llegue the spring.

The plan keeps hibernating unos 3 or 4 months. Sarracenia purpurea it takes 5 months.

Sundew, Nepenthes, Cephalotus, Heliamphora y algunas Pinguiculas son plantas tropicales que no aguantan el frío y por tanto, nunca deben estar por debajo de + 5º C. Tampoco aguantan el extreme heat. Hay Pinguiculas and Droseras de clima templado que soporta las heladas.

Darlingtonia resists heladas debiles and es perfecta para exterior.

Drosophyllum también sobrevive a las heladas. Es autóctona del Clima Mediterráneo y al sol en el jardín lives beautifully.

Nepenthes es la que más humedad en el aire precise, y como le falte, las jarras se secarán. A terrarium of the acuario type or a similar vessel, eg a lugar ideal para Nepenthes.

Dionaea, Sarracenia, Nepethes, Pinguicula, Cephalotus. todas quieren mucha humedad ambiental. La que menos specifies es la ibérica Drosophyllum.

To increase the humedad puedes poner en práctica alguno de los siguientes métodos:

• Place the maceta inside a bandaja or cuenco with 2 or 3 cm. de agua destilada or de lluvia. Sirve para regarla al chupar por debajo y la humedad será constant. Yes no, pon al lado de la planta un barreño con agua.

• TO Nepenthes puedes pulverizarle sus hojas con agua destilada, pero nunca pulverices Droseras, Pinguiculas ni Dionaea.

• Instalar a humidifier en la habitación.

Terrarium with Carnívoras


• Terrarium. The humedad ambiental is high in the terrarium. Dionaeas y Nepenthes estarán de maravilla en él y te durarán más. A terrarium if puede hacer with a pecera or acuario de unos 40cm de largo x 25 cm. de ancho y unos 25 cm. de alto.

• Si no tienes terrarium, puedes construir a habitáculo de madera y plástico in the way of a mini-winter. With a container lleno de agua inside it provides a high humedad.

The terrarium or mini-inverandero if coloca seeks de la ventana para que reciba de 2 to 4 hours of sol and if it complements a lámpara de neón or tubos fluorescentes de las usadas para acuarios colocada encima of the terrarium.

The renovación del aire It is very important to avoid that if it is vicious and sober, it is that with toda seguridad llevará a la aparición de hongos. Puedes abrir el terrarium por las noches, por ejemplo.

6. Sustratos para Plantas Carnívoras

Como en su hábitat natural viven en suelos muy pobres en nutrientes, el sustrato de las macetas también debe ser pobre. En una tierra normal para plantas de interior las raíces se quemarían por las sales minerales that it contains.

Esfagno (peat moss)

El esfagno es el mejor sustrato para Plantas Carnívoras. If you treat a type of musgo en semidescomposicion on pH es ácido, pobre en nutrientes, aireado, esponjoso y con gran capacidad para retener agua. If you need it alone or halfway with the arena.

Debe ser arena gruesa y lavada de todo type de sales. No sirve la arena de playa ni la de construcción. Not if you use it alone, till mezclada with el esfagno.

In tiendas de acuarofilia venden a gravilla fine para peceras de agua dulce en forma de bolitas de 2 to 4 mm de diámetro en diferentes colores buenas para mezclarla with esfagno.


The perlita is a mineral that if somete a thermal texture para que aumente su volumen (algo parecido a lo que pasa con las palomitas de maíz). Son bolitas blancas with alta capacidad para retener agua y a la vez conservar una alta porosidad. No must contain sales solubles así que lávala antes de usearla en la mezcla.

En resumen, los posibles sustratos are:

  • Only exfagno.
  • 1/3 of arena + 2/3 of esfagno.
  • 1/3 of sand + 1/3 of perlita + 1/3 of esfagno.

El llamado "sustrato para Orquídeas" es fácil de encontrar en grandes almacenes y viveros. Unido a más esfagnos también sirve para Plantas Carnívoras.

There "tierra de castaños" or "tierra de brezo" es de pH ácido, but no sirve porque contains sales y nutrientes minerales.

Nepenthes

El type de maceta más recomendable para Plantas Carnívoras son las de plástico. Resistentes, duraderas, las hay de todos los tamaños y no disuelve sustancias en el agua. Otros materiales posibles son porcelana or cristal.

Las macetas de barro or terracota contienen minerales y otras sustancias que se disuelven con el agua y es mejor avoidlas. The macetas keep in the fund various agujeros for the agua between the regarla for the "method of the bands". Estos agujeros se pueden tapar with a trocito de malla mosquitera.


Las cestas colgantes are ideales para Nepenthes, que quedan con los jarros suspendidos en el aire.


Parasites and diseases of Sarracenia

Even if it is a carnivorous plant, the Sarracenia is still attacked by aphids, mites and caterpillars that devastate it in a short time.

Cures and treatments

Manually eliminate dried ascidia to prevent the formation of dangerous molds.

To defeat the parasites, on the other hand, simply immerse the sarracenia for 24 hours in demineralized water.

The parasites, since they cannot survive underwater, they die of suffocation and once they are afloat, all that remains is to remove them with a strainer.


Sarracenia flava: Cultural techniques

The cultivation of these plants is quite simple, if you follow some important precautions as for all carnivores.

First of all it is important to administer abundant quantities of water from the saucer, which we will always leave with at least two centimeters of water, distilled or rainwater. The exposure must be in the sun, as long as possible. If the temperatures are extremely high, then we can shade the plant slightly. The usually favorable growing periods are spring and autumn, but many Sarracenias also thrive in the summer.

Sarracenia is a plant that lives in temperate areas, and for this reason it must necessarily rest during the winter, and it is therefore necessary to subject it to very rigid temperatures. To do this, just leave the pot outside, without water in the saucer but only checking that the substrate is moist. There is no need to worry if the temperature will drop even a lot below zero, because this plant withstands really cold temperatures.

For repotting it is necessary to wait until February, when the plant is almost ready to resume the vegetative period. We will therefore use a larger pot than the previous one, and we will use a substrate composed of a part of sphagnum peat and a part of perlite. It is also possible to add a small part of vermiculite, but not in doses higher than 10%. It is important, during repotting, not to handle the roots excessively, but to try to repot the whole bread of earth, perhaps removing only the excess peat.

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